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RS 2477: Public Rights-of-Way in an Era of Administrative Avoidance - Citations

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ENDNOTES
Description from Text of Article Revised Statute R.S. 2477
Reference/Citation Act of July 26, 1866, ch. 262, § 8, 14 Stat. 251, 253, codified at 43 USC § 932, repealed by Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (“FLPMA”), Pub. L. No. 94-579, § 706 (a), 90 Stat. 2743. Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance v. Bureau of Land Management, 425 F.3d 735, 784 (10th Cir. 2005). Pub. L. No. 94-579, § 701(a), 90 Stat. 2743, 2786. Sierra Club v. Hodel, 848 F.2d 1068, 1083 (10th Cir. 1988); Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance v. BLM, 425 F.3d 735, 768 (2005). Smith v. Mitchell, 21 Wash. 536, 540, 58 P. 667, 668 (1899). Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance, 425 F.3d 735 at 770.
Definition of “not reserved for public uses” FLPMA repealed R.S. 2477 State law governs establishment of R.S. 2477 rightof-ways Washington Supreme Court quote re state law governing creation of R.S. 2477 right-of-ways State requirements for creating R.S. 2477 right-ofways vary from requiring official action, to mere public use for a period of time Federal government does not need to approve R.S. 2477 right-of-ways Suits against the federal government concerning disputes in real property must be brought under the Quiet Title Act Administrative agencies do not have authority to make binding determinations regarding validity of R.S. 2477 right-of-way claims
43 CFR § 2822.1-1 (1979); 43 CFR § 244.55 (1939); Sierra Club, 848 F.2d at 1078. 28 U.S.C. § 2409a; Block v. North Dakota, 461 U.S. 273, 275 -276 (1983); Michel v. United States, 65 F.3d 130, 131 (9th Cir. 1995). See, e.g., The Wilderness Society v. Kane County, Utah, 632 F.3d 1162 (2011). There is a point of view that the BLM can make a binding determinations via the Recordable Disclaimer regulations (43 CFR Part § 1864.0-1), and that the USFS can made a binding determinations in the context of assessing access for a landowner (36 CFR § 251.114(f)(1)). US Bureau of Land Management Idaho State Office, Road Management and Maintenance Guidelines for Public Lands in Idaho 6 (November, 2002).
Post-FLPMA, BLM solicited maps showing locations of claimed public highways
(Cont.) Hodel Policy for R.S. 2477 right‐of‐ways Secretary of the Interior, Departmental Implementa on of Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance v. Bureau of Land Management, 425 F.3d 735 (10th Cir. 2005); Revoca on of January 22, 1997, Interim Policy; Revoca on of December 7, 1988, Policy a achment 1, p. 2 (March 22, 2006). 59 Fed. Reg. 39216 (August 1, 1994).
DOI no ce of proposed rulemaking for R.S. 2477 right‐ of‐way regula ons Congress’s prohibi on on using federal funds to finalize R.S. 2477 rulemaking Public Law 104‐108
Public Law 104‐134, § 110, 110 Stat. 321‐177 (1996).
Public Law 104‐208, § 108, 110 Stat. 3009 (September 30, 1996). The General Accoun ng Office determined that Public Law 104‐208 § 108 has the status of permanent law. GAO Opinion B‐277719 at 1 ‐5 (August 20, 1997). Secretary of the Interior, Interim Departmental Policy on Revised Statute 2477 Grant for Right‐of‐Way for Public Highways; Revoca‐ on of December 7, 1988 Policy, a achment 2‐1, p. 2 (January 22, 1997); available at: h p://www.highway‐robbery.org/documents/1 ‐22‐1997_memo_from_Bruce_Babbi _RS2477_policy.pdf. Southern Utah Wilderness Alliance, 425 F.3d 735.
Babbi Policy for R.S. 2477 right‐of‐ways
SUWA v. BLM discussion
Utah suits regarding R.S. 2477 right‐of‐way claims
Public Lands News, Vol. 37, No. 3, 8‐10 (James B. Coffin ed., Febru‐ ary 3, 2012). See, e.g., 43 .FR § 4.1, wherein the USDI, Office of Hearings and Appeals, has historically and efficiently adjudicated public land ma ers.
Federal agencies are uniquely situated to handle and adjudicate the processing of public right‐of‐ways claims

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